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Analysis of the development strategy and policy of the 3D printing industry in the United States
The United States is a major promoter of 3D printing technology. The main reason is that the United States regards networked manufacturing as its core competitiveness, and 3D printing technology is the key supporting technology for American networked manufacturing. The U.S. government believes that the development of 3D printing technology is a shortcut to improve the competitiveness of American manufacturing, and 3D printing technology gives the United States more advantages in competing with low-cost countries. The US government's promotion of 3D printing technology is mainly reflected in three levels: national strategy, roadmap, research plan and implementation. At the national strategic level, President Obama released the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership Program (AMP) in 2011; in February 2012, the National Science and Technology Council of the United States released the Advanced Manufacturing National Strategic Plan; in March 2012, Obama and Announced a $1 billion investment to implement the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), a national network of manufacturing innovations consisting of 15 manufacturing innovation institutes focused on various emerging technologies such as 3D printing and genetic mapping to drive manufacturing Innovation and growth. In these strategic plans, additive manufacturing technology is listed as one of the most critical manufacturing technologies in the United States in the future; in April 2012, 'additive manufacturing technology' was identified as the first manufacturing innovation center; in August 2012, as a As part of the 'National Manufacturing Innovation Network' program, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) in Youngstown, Ohio, was established. $45 million in government funding, $30 million in initial funding; $40 million from a consortium of businesses, schools, and nonprofits in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, with $70 million in total . This society is essentially a public-private cooperative research institution composed of three members: industry, academia and research. It is committed to the development of additive manufacturing technology and products, and to enhance the competitiveness of domestic manufacturing. Currently, it mainly studies three Technical topics are the study of the properties and performance of printing materials, qualification and certification testing, as well as process capability and process control. At the roadmap level, the United States has released the additive manufacturing technology roadmap twice in 1998 and 2009. In 2009, the American academic community held the second 10-12 years-oriented additive manufacturing technology Ru0026D roadmap seminar, which brought together 65 experts and scholars from academia, business and government to formulate the future 10-12 years for additive manufacturing technology. 12 Years of Research Guide. The seminar focuses on the future prospects of additive manufacturing technology in various aspects of design, process modeling and control, materials, biomedical applications, energy and sustainable development, education and research and development. Through the overall assessment, it is determined that if the additive manufacturing technology can be continuously promoted to the forefront of development, it will create greater development opportunities. Key recommendations from this roadmap report are the establishment of a National Test Bed Center (NTBC) to drive future equipment and human resource development in the field and demonstrate concepts for manufacturing research. On the basis of the 2009 roadmap, the Edison Welding Institute (EWI), the North American welding and material bonding engineering technology leadership organization, established the Additive Manufacturing Consortium (AMC) with the primary goal of increasing the maturity of additive manufacturing technologies , and on the basis of the state, advocating and funding additive manufacturing technology to advance it from the current emerging technology level to the mainstream manufacturing technology level. AMC currently includes 33 corporate members and cooperative organizations including large enterprises, small enterprises, government agencies and important university research institutions. In terms of research planning and implementation, Ford of the United States has taken the lead. Ford is developing a highly flexible new 3D printing manufacturing technology, which Ford calls Freeform Technology (F3T), to reduce the cost and time required to produce sheet metal parts in small batches. The F3T technology takes only a few hours to create a mold with a three-dimensional shape. Once in production, the prototype can be completed in three days, and it takes two to six months under the traditional method. Moreover, F3T technology also provides a wider range of personalized options for product manufacturing. But at present, F3T technology is still in its early stage, which can only provide small-scale applications and cannot meet mass consumption. The technology also has broad application prospects in the aerospace, defense, transportation and appliance industries. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to provide $7.04 million in energy grants for next-generation products to advance energy-efficient manufacturing processes. Five innovative manufacturing projects, including Ford and other collaborators, received a total of $2.35 million in energy funding in an initial three-year phase.