automatic joints filling in sample tile displays using a robotic system.

by:Gewinn     2020-06-02
The distributor displays the product settings using the introduction sample tile display.
These displays are made by fixing tiles on wooden plates.
Once the tiles are positioned, the remaining space between tileedges (known as joint)
Filled with plaster (
This process is called joint filling).
The size of the ceramic display ranges from 1x1 m to 1x2 m, and the width of the joint ranges from 2-
Maximum 3mm to 10mm (Fig. 1-a).
The joint filling process involves mixing the oil-based gypsum with the catalyst and curing it within 30 minutes.
To fill the seam, an application device is used to inject the determined amount of plaster directly into the seam between the tiles (Fig. 1-b).
Once the plaster is applied, the excess of plaster can be eliminated by using the putty knife.
Finally, clean the surface of the work area with a sponge with solvent.
Depending on the size and complexity of the panel, this is a manual process that takes 5 to 10 minutes.
In order to reduce the operation time, in this work, 6-
The joint humanoid robot and automatic plaster system is controlled by a system that integrates panel image processing and automatic robot trajectory definition. [
Figure 1 slightly]2.
Description of the automatic tile seam filling suggestion system the suggestion system includes (Fig. 2): --6-
Joint humanoid robot (Staubli RX90). --
Plaster application system, consisting of nozzles placed in the hands of the robot and reciprocating pumps with DC motors. --A 3.
2 pixel digital camera. --
Computers with the following functions: image capture, image processing, fill path generator and robot communication via a digital camera. [
Figure 2:2.
1 Description of the robot and its environment Staubli RX90 6-
Joint robot has been used.
This is a small robot.
Maximum range of 900)
Limited load capacity (
Nominal speed 6 kg).
The maximum Descartes speed is 2 m/s and the repeatability is [+ or -]0,02 mm.
While the robot has 6 degrees of freedom, it is necessary to have only 5 degrees of freedom for this application. Joint 4 (
Rotate the forearm around the axis)
It is not needed because the application is on a plane.
In order to achieve a wide working volume on the plane, the most suitable configuration is the ceiling
Robot with panel installed, panel is located on the floor.
The application device is pumped by a column of peristaltic (2009)
Driven by a speed regulating DC motor that drives plaster-
Included in the mixing tank-
Reach the nozzle located in the robot\'s hand through the pipe.
The stainless steel nozzle has a terminal element that can collect excess material as an putty knife.
Depending on the thickness of the joint and the type of path, the applied plaster flow is changed by changing the DCmotor speed. 2.
2 The starting point of this stage of image processing and geometric data extraction is the gray scale image of the entire image.
The first step in obtaining geometric data (
Line and vertex)
Is to process a grayscale image to obtain a binary image, where tilejoints is a black line with a pixel width.
To do this, several famous Image operations (Morris, 2004;
De la Escalera, 2001)
Must be done in the image.
To do this, use the Matlab Image Processing Toolbox (
User\'s Guide to image processing toolbox, 1998).
The suggested operation sequence represented by the reference toolbox function is as follows, an example of this operation is shown in the figure
3: * I1 = * ii2 = * I3 = * I4 = * I5 = im2 * I6 = * I7 = * I8 = [
Figure 3 slightly]
Once a binary image containing an internal slice line with a pixel width is obtained, geometric data about vertices and line coordinates must be calculated.
First, the vertex is obtained by calculating the number of black pixels near each pixel.
If there is only one black adjacent pixel, an external vertex is found.
If there are three or four black neighbors, an internal vertex will be found.
When two vertices are found to be very close (
Only a few pixels far away)
One of them was discarded.
The image shows the vertices detected in the example (Fig. 4): [
Figure 4 slightly]
The next step is to define the edge or line that connects the vertex.
Each edge is defined by its two extreme vertices.
Two edges are defined: the required side that must be filled and the non-required side that does not need to be filled.
What is not needed is the external edge of the panel, defined by simply re-ordering the external vertices.
Detect the required edges by a more complex algorithm, starting with each vertex, and find another vertex along the way of a black pixel.
Last geometric data (
Number of vertices)
, Before storing the data to afile, the coordinate transformation obtained in the number of pixels must be converted into the real position coordinates in the robot coordinate system. 2.
3 Once the geometric data of the panel, the trajectory definition and process transformation of the geometric trajectory to the robot motion sequence (
Vertex and edge)
It has been obtained that in order to fill all the required edges, the controller must calculate the trajectory to be followed by the robot.
Graph problem (
Such as China\'s postal problem or rural postal problem)
It can be applied to calculate the best trajectory in the sense of minimum distance.
However, for the problems studied, the quality of edge filling is higher and more important.
Therefore, the algorithm that defines the trajectory is based on a single straight line motion that attempts to fill several continuous edges, starting from an external vertex and completing the motion on another external vertex.
Therefore, the minimum total distance becomes a secondary goal.
The algorithm starts with arbitrary vertices outside.
The first edge selected is any required edge starting from that vertex.
The next edge selects the non-overlay required edge in the same direction as the previous edge (i. e.
Same as a straight line in front).
If this is not possible, the next edge is a required edge for any not covered.
If this is not possible, the next one is any non-required without coverage.
Finally, if this is not possible, select the next edge as the newly created virtual edge that connects the current vertex to any other vertex belonging to any of the unoverwritten required edges.
Before there is an edge that needs to be overwritten, The Edge selection algorithm is applied in turn.
To override a trajectory defined as a series of edges (
Needed and not needed
The motion sequence of the robot must be obtained.
To this end, three types of robot movements are defined.
The first corresponds to the desired edge of the fill.
This movement starts with a tool located in the right direction of the edge and is defined as a simple straight translation of the tool tip (
Don\'t change the direction of it)
, At a constant Z, (
Maybe more than one)
Continuous edge.
The second motion corresponds to a change in the direction of the vertex.
It starts with the tool located in the direction of the last fillededge, consisting of rising, changing the direction of the tool position to fill the next edge and falling.
The third motion corresponds to a non-required edge.
It starts with a tool located in the direction of the last fill edge, consisting of the resulting motion until the straight motion of the next vertex is carried out simultaneously with the direction change of the tool to locate the next edge to be filled, and the final downward movement.
Thus, the trajectory is converted into these three types of motion sequences. 2.
4 communication and control strategy communication between the master PC and the robot controller is carried out through serial and parallel ports.
The PC uses a serial port to send motion information that must be performed to the robot controller, and the PC uses a parallel port to read the digital output of the robot controller indicating whether the previous motion is performed to synchronize the next motion communication.
Therefore, before the entire panel is filled, the trajectory to be executed is communicated by motion.
The robot controller has a loaded program that basically reads the material port, explains the motion of the transmission, and executes it, changes the state of the digital output, and asks the main PC about the new motion.
This program is written in V language, version 11 (1993)
, Andit starts from the main PC through the serial port command. 3.
Conclusion in this work, the automatic filling of ceramic tile joints in the sample tiledisplay was solved using the humanoid six-joint robot.
The task that has been successfully solved is to extract geometric data from the panel Image, define the trajectory to follow, and convert the trajectory to the order in which the robot moves, this sequence is performed with the communication and action of the robot.
The seam filling of the sample tile panel is completely handmade.
Applications developed will greatly reduce the cost of the process.
Future work to improve the system is: optimizing the sync between gypsum supply flow and robot movement speed, as well as the automation of the cleaning process. 4.
Reference to De la Escalera Hueso,. (2001).
Visual por computador: y metodos fundamentos, Prentice Hall, 8420530980, Madrid. Morris, T. (2004).
Computer Vision and Image Processing.
PalgraveMacmillan. ISBN 0-333-99451-5 *** (1993).
V language, ver11.
Reference Guide.
Francis. A.
, Adept Technology, Inc. , USA. *** (1998)
User Guide for image processing toolbox, v. 2. 1 forMatlab 5.
2. MathWorks online ftp. mathworks. com *** (2009)Boyser S. L.
At: 2009-06-
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