what are tunnel boring machines?

by:Gewinn     2020-06-05
The tunnel digging machine is a machine specially designed for the construction of a circular section tunnel.
The tunnel boring machine can \"dig\" through a variety of soil types, including hard rock \".
Although these machines can be used for any type of tunnel construction, they are most needed in the construction of urban tunnels, that is, when underground tunnels are built under the city.
Tunnel drilling machine (TBM)
Compared with the traditional \"drilling and blasting\" method, it has many advantages.
The use of TBM makes the circular tunnel wall smooth, reducing the work required to align the tunnel wall, thus reducing the cost of the tunnel.
In addition, compared to manual mining and blasting, there is less interference caused by the TBM on the surface.
The working principle of the tunnel drilling machine has two large metal cylinders (shields)
Installed on the trailing support mechanism.
The front of the shield has a rotating cutting wheel.
There is a chamber after the cutting wheel in which the excavated material (
Sand, rock or any soil mixture)
Either mix with water to make the slurry or keep it as it is.
The system of removing the excavated object completes the tunnel boring machine.
Basically, TBMs work like earthworms, dig forward and drag the back end.
A series of hydraulic systems have pushed the tunnel forward (
Digging soil)
When its back end is supported with the tunnel wall.
When the head of the shield machine is excavated at the maximum length (
This depends on the possible variables, including the type of TBM, the type of soil, etc)
The front end of the tunnel shield machine is supported by the tunnel wall, and the back end is pulled forward.
These cycles continue until the entire tunnel is excavated.
Rotary cutting head of tunnel tunneling machine: located in front of tunnel boring machine.
While it is more of a cutting action, it is part of the actual \"digging.
The cutting wheel will rotate at different speeds (1 to 10 rpm)
According to the type of soil.
Since the invention of the rotary cutting head, the need to replace the cutting parts has decreased significantly.
Although these are not infinite, they have a considerable life span.
Metal Shield: this is a large metal cylinder used to support the machine on a wall tunnel.
Depending on the type of TBM to be excavated and the type of soil, there can be one or two shields.
A rock type of soil can be used-
When digging sand and digging soil, the shield machine needs two-
Shield tbm support mechanism: there is a large number of support mechanisms behind the cutting wheel and shield TBMS, such as dirt removal, control room, guide rail, transportation system, pipeline (
If the slurry is created), etc.
Source: Wagner and Schulte. 1996.
Tunneling machinery: Trends in mechanized tunneling design and construction.
Taylor and Francis
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