information on the euro tunnel, or the chunnel: design & safety features

by:Gewinn     2019-08-25
European tunnel-technical details began in 1987 and were completed in 1994, also known as the European tunnel of the tunnel, or, more commonly, the tunnel, is one of the most challenging civil engineering projects in the 20 th century.
European tunnel connecting the United StatesK.
And France, there are 600 trains a day.
The tunnel is 50 km long, of which 39 km is an underwater tunnel.
The structure consists of two railway tunnels and one service tunnel.
The diameter of the track tunnel is 7.
6 m, while the diameter of the central tunnel used for ventilation and maintenance is 4. 8 m.
There are many cross-paths that allow the train to move from track to track.
Average depth of submarine tunnel-
The bed is about 45 metres.
The geotechnical investigation of the tunnel studies the geological profile and topography of the area surrounding the tunnel to determine the most suitable rock formation and to ensure that there are no major geological disasters on the tunnel path.
These studies reveal the features of the rocks in the region and the precise location of the fault zone.
Geological Samples confirm that the mining conditions of the project are perfect.
Due to the high voidage, the top and middle layers are not suitable for excavation, and water can easily penetrate through these gaps.
In addition, the upper layer contains sand and gravel that makes drilling difficult.
Underneath these layers is a layer of chalk consisting mainly of clay.
Clay acts as a barrier to water passage.
Detailed investigations allow the selection of suitable equipment, excavation techniques, ground assistance and the reduction of unforeseen risks.
To further reduce these risks, vertical and horizontal routes were optimized to make the most of water and ground conditions.
Using 11 tunnel rigs, the European tunnel was excavated at a rate of 250 feet per day.
The tunnel drill is like a large cylinder of two football fields.
The tool of the tunnel drilling machine fixed on the front of the machine has tungsten teeth.
The broken material generated by the excavation is carried out by the conveyor belt through the rear of the tunnel rig.
The total amount of dirt and garbage removed from the tunnel is over 8 million cubic meters!
On the British side, a closed pond was built to store loose sediment.
At the French end, the water is mixed with the soil and the mixture is pumped outside.
The tunnel, funded by a group of financiers, cost about $13 billion.
Since this channel is the first in the transport industry, detailed research is required to meet basic safety requirements.
Detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the entire project, involving experts in all areas.
These studies include testing of fire detection equipment, smoke control, evacuation procedures, and several other systems involved in the business.
Multiple communication systems have been installed for the connection between the railway control center and the train and between the passenger and the shuttle bus crew.
A comprehensive integration of all systems was carried out and a validity check was carried out.
When running under this unique condition, communication is an important security feature.
On 1996, a train bound for France caught fire, causing serious damage to the service of the tunnel.
The track about 500 had to be replaced.
On 2008, another fire accident occurred, and it cost 60 million to repair the tunnel.
It has been shut down for quite some time, and the safety features of the tunnel have been criticized by people around the world.
The two accidents forced authorities on both sides to improve safety arrangements.
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