londonâx80x99s big dig reveals amazing layers of history

by:Gewinn     2019-08-10
In the bright laboratory above the Archaeological Museum of London (MOLA)
, Administrator Luisa Duarte is gently cleaning a large
A few days ago, a construction site on Lime Street in the heart of the city\'s financial district brought into the museum\'s century mural.
The workers are new 38-
A story office building appeared on the ruins of an early Roman building.
Experts at the Museum trace it back to about. D.
60, making it one of the earliest Roman murals found in London so far.
It is nearly 10 feet long and over 6 feet high and one of the largest and most complete buildings.
The man who commissioned this was very rich, said Duarte, holding a color knife in his hand and gently prying into the wet dirt still attached to the surface of the mural.
It may be a wealthy businessman or a banker.
People with taste, money and style.
This red color, for example, seems to be a vermilion, an expensive and rarely used pigment.
We come across it once in a while, but only in the best works.
Archaeologists believe the mural is decorated with a building that was demolished in the second century. D.
In order to make way for the magnificent new churches and forums, the Romans will build Bisheng north of the Alps.
Today is St. Paul\'s Cathedral.
The entire community is razed to the ground, the ruins are used as landfill sites, and the vision of the next generation is built on top.
This is the first of many urban renewal projects in the next 1,900 years.
Peel down the sidewalk of an old big city like London, you can find almost anything, from the beginning
A pair of medieval skating and even elephant teeth in the medieval Roman murals.
As one of Europe\'s oldest capitals, London has been continuously inhabited and built by Romans, Saxons, Norman, Tudor, Georgians, Regent Rex and Victoria, everyone joined the pile.
As a result, the modern city is situated on top of a rich archaeological cake of up to 30 feet m.
The challenge for archaeologists is that London is also a bustling metropolis with more than 8 million residents.
There are bustling streets, skyscrapers and magnificent buildings everywhere.
The opportunity to lift the concrete veil and move around in artifacts
There is often less fertile soil.
But the perfect storm of a landmark project and the architectural boom at London\'s archaeological center offer an unprecedented opportunity to peek underground and explore the city\'s deep history.
The resulting archaeological results are almost overwhelming.
They include millions of artifacts, covering the human history of the late Victorian period from the Early Middle Stone Age around 11,000 years ago to the end of the 19 th century.
The findings also include thousands of bones. and-
Archives of dead and buried Londoners in the cemetery built and forgotten centuries ago.
Archaeologists have discovered for centuries.
Old bones under London
Don Walker, a human osteologist or skeleton expert at Mora, said these excavations provide us with a fascinating snapshot of the lives of Londoners over the years.
It makes you realize that we\'re all just a small pass player for a long time. running story.
One of the first chapters of this story after 2010 in three-
Shortly after the Bloomberg London acre construction siteto-
The financial empire of Bloomberg opened its European headquarters.
Located in the old ward of Cordwainer, where leather workers have been engaged in trade since Roman times, 40-foot-
Deep pit is one of the most important Roman ruins found in early London.
The whole street scene was shown when the soil was cleared, all of which were
Shop with frame, house, fence and yard.
Starting in his early 60 s. D.
Since then, the site is in such an amazing state of preservation that archaeologists call the ancient city of Pompeii in the north.
More than 14,000 artifacts, including coins, amulets, pewter plates, ceramic lights, 250 leather boots and sandals, and more than 900 boxes of pottery, were found during the excavation.
A large boring machine like this called Victoria is to commemorate the Queen of England, who oversees the Birth of Modern Railways, as part of Europe\'s largest infrastructure project, is carving 26 miles of tunnels below London.
Archaeologist Sadi Watson said it was the richest small discovery found in a dig in the city, and he supervised the dig in Mora.
It gives us an unprecedented understanding of the daily life of Rome and London.
There are nearly 400 rare wooden writing boards in this treasure house, some of which still show clear letters, legal agreements and financial documents. (
Another website has a purchase list, a party invitation and a contract to sell slave girls. )
The extraordinary preservation is attributed to a forgotten stream, called Walbrook, which runs through the heart of the Roman lontennia on its way to the Thames.
The marsh-like banks and the soil of stagnant water hold almost everything that falls into it.
\"Well, England is old and wet,\" Watson said with a smile . \".
Thanks to the Thames and its tributaries, London has one of the best environments for preserving artifacts anyone wants to have.
Leather, wood and metal items will rot or rust from the ground in amazing good condition here.
So far, the biggest gospel of Archaeology in London is the $23 billion new railway project.
This is the largest project in Europe and the largest archaeological excavation project in Europe.
Since working in 2009, the 26-mile tunnel through the railway and more than 40 construction sites have discovered thousands of artifacts and fossils over the past 70,000 years.
Last spring, the biggest and most spectacular excavation took place in front of the busy Liverpool Street depot.
Plans to build an underground ticket hall mean crossing the old Bedlam cemetery, the city\'s first municipal cemetery.
This work requires the bones of more than 3,300 Londoners.
Most died in the 16 th and 17 th centuries, when the streets of the city were often followed by plagues.
1936 shenato Shenfield, London (London)10 mi)London 1886 (Victorian)
Greenskey strafu (
Host of the 2012 Olympic Games)
LiverpoolStreetCentrePointBT towernewham farringdontowerhamlets30 StMary AxePaddingtonKENSINGTONANDCHELSEATo read (32 mi)and Heathrow (12 mi)
Alonso has foiled klondiniuma. D. 43-410(Roman)
Hammersmithandfulhamplumsteadportalgreenwichlambehlewishamwandsworth2 miCrossrail static rossrailtunnellondon undergrowth cross rail surface line2 kmThe New Trans rail line runs 73 mi (
26 miles underground)
Through the metropolis that has been growing for centuries.
London 1936 London 1886 (modern London)Victorian)
St Mary axstrafu (
Host of the 2012 Olympic Games)
BT TowerAbbeyWoodPaddingtonBig BenThe ShardThe O2 ArenaLondiniumA. D. 43-410(Roman)
Plumsteadport2 miCrossrail surface line track Tunnel 2-kilometer rail stand under the new rail run 73 miles (
26 miles underground)
Through the metropolis that has been growing for centuries.
As the cemeteries of the plague victims were quickly filled, city officials decided to set up a public cemetery to accommodate the flood.
The governors of the berlem Royal Hospital, widely known as Bedlam, the first crazy asylum in Europe sold them an acre of land in 1569.
Since it is not associated with any church, Bedlam is the preferred place for militants, uncondescending, immigrants and unadaptable, and working poor.
When the cemetery was finally closed, about 1738 people, it had been filled many times and an estimated 30,000 died there.
Bedbed\'s chief archaeologist, Jay Carver, said the Bedlam cemetery is the city\'s most diverse cemetery, and his team spent months researching the site before starting to dig.
It represents society as a whole, from madmen and criminals to the wife of the former mayor of London.
Kaver and I stood on a viewing deck overlooking the excavation.
In the pit below, a team of 30 archaeologists wore orange overalls, blue helmets, and painted dirt from the skull\'s eyebrows.
It is believed that many of the bones being excavated have died in the 1665 outbreak of the great plague, and between 75,000 and 100,000 Londoners have died in about 450,000 of the population.
Embark on an animated journey through London\'s 40,000-year history.
Scientists plan to test some remains, hoping to learn about the evolution of plague bacteria that kill so many.
One of the biggest mysteries is why the plague has never returned to London after 1665, says Kaver.
It was a regular visitor to the city until that time, but never. Why? What changed?
We hope this will provide some answers.
It is almost impossible to identify personal remains at the old Bedlam cemetery.
While some coffins have initials, the tombstone is broken and reused in walls and buildings when the area is redeveloped.
But one set of bones that may be found is Robert Lockyer, a populist activist who was executed by the firing squad in 1649.
He was buried in Bedlam, the largest funeral ever in the old cemetery, attended by more than 4,000 mourners.
Kaver paid special attention to him.
If we meet any skeletons with fire guns
We will have a very good idea of who it is.
Lockyer\'s way of passing will bring some historical prestige to his bones, but the bones of others may tell a more interesting story.
The bones usually tell us more about how people live than how they die, said bone scientist Don Walker.
Isotope and bone analysis from 14 th collectionand 15th-
The excavated century skeleton at Charterhouse Square depicts the tragic picture of medieval London life.
Many people have signs of malnutrition, and one out of every six people has rickets.
Severe dental problems and tooth abscess are also common, as are muscle strain injuries caused by back injuries and heavy labor.
In the late 1400 s, the rate of upper body injuries was disturbing, possibly in line with the violent bickering caused by the collapse of law and order following the plague.
However, London still seems to be a strong attraction for the Countryman looking for a better life.
Isotope analysis showed that nearly half of the bones tested were individuals who grew up outside the city, some from northern Scotland.
Looks like the 14 th-
Century London has attracted people from all over the UK, as it is today, Walker said.
On a wet weekday morning, it had eight clocks and the sidewalk in front of the Cannon Street station was packed with commuters.
Few have noticed that the iron grille is set on the foundation of a former bank building across the street, not to mention peeking between bars, looking at the lime stones that live there and hiding them for safekeeping.
This is a stone in London.
Its original purpose was what no one could say, although it is said that the city would collapse if the stones were removed or destroyed.
It was mentioned in the real estate deed before 1108, and even then it was considered an ancient landmark. Sixteenth-
William Camden thinks it\'s a Roman Museum.
All distances in Rome and Britain are measured from zero milestones.
This is mentioned in both Shakespeare\'s plays and Blake\'s poems.
It has been sitting in the middle of the street for centuries, a folk landmark until 1742, when it is finally considered a traffic hazard and transferred to the north side of the street, don\'t stop.
It has remained there since then, first and foremost in the Holy.
After the church was destroyed in the Blitz, The Swain Church, along with the later church, was placed on the wall of the new building.
What the stone in London should be is a bit of a mystery, \"said Jane Seidel, a historic England monuments inspector, a national agency that advocates protected land targets.
But it plays an important role in the archaeological history of London.
Sir Christopher Wren rebuilt St.
For example, after the fire of 1666, he installed a stove around the nearby London Stone to protect it.
This is the first known example, and there are people who go out of their way to preserve archaeological sites in situ.
Wren is not very concerned about the large number of Roman ruins he found while digging the foundation for St. Wren.
St. Paul\'s Cathedral.
Fortunately for future generations, another man did, a local antique man named John Conyers, who followed Wren\'s workers around to take notes and pack bags, and detailed drawings were drawn in what modern historians believe to be the first place in the world to formally investigate archaeology.
Conyers also recorded the excavation of a mammoth elephant near the King\'s Cross a few years later, and for the first time successfully argued that the flint stone hand axe found nearby was of human origin.
 x80 x9c Previously these things was think â x80 x98 faerie lightning â x80 x99 â x80 waste Seidel pointed out that.
But until the 1840 s, when Victorian engineers began digging under the city to build an extensive sewer system, the newly discovered archaeological science discovered its feet.
A pharmacist, coin collector and amateur antique lover named Charles Roach Smith put aside social customs, put on old clothes and fell into the tunnel to follow the workers.
Like coniles, he observed their excavations, took notes, drew drawings, and salvaged any artifacts he could salvage.
As we know, this is the beginning of archaeology at the construction site, said Jay Kaver of the cross-rail company.
Roach Smith has become the country\'s most important authority on Roman British antiques, and his \"Rome London illustration\" is an authoritative work on the subject for 50 years.
His personal collection of artifacts later forms the heart of the London museum\'s own Roman-British collection.
Out of a strange quirk of fate, Roch Smith\'s former home, located at 5 Liverpool Street, was occupied today by the office building where the archaeological team in Crossley is located, which is not a coincidence for its chief archaeologist.
The cockroach Smith has a special place in our minds, he said.
Although he worked before 150, his observations and notes helped remind us of the potential of various sites around the city.
Not all London archaeology is underground.
The momentum of the original two-
Once surrounded by the city\'s medieval Roman walls, in the mountains of tower or holy.
Alphage Garden, or next to the London Museum, exposed a section of the Roman wall by the German Air Force during a night bombing on 1940.
Park your car in a nearby underground garage and you can top the bumper to one of the city\'s original gates.
At the barber shop at the corner of the Gracechurch Street and Leadenhall Market, in the basement downstairs, you can see the second arch support --
Roman church of the century
But the largest and most striking archaeological site in London is the Thames, said Natalie Cohen, head of the Thames Discovery project at London\'s archaeological museum, as the tide retreated.
It was a clear winter morning, soon after sunrise, the top of the Holy Dome
St. Paul\'s Cathedral sparkles in Low PlacesAngle of Sunshine
We are on the Thames Embankment right below the cathedral, along a group of algae
The newly exposed front is covered with stone steps.
This is a mess of water.
Smooth pebbles, roof tiles, animal bones, crockery, broken earth smoke pipes, rusty iron, and large blocks of thick colored glass worn round and frosted by the relentless action of the tide.
\'Almost all you see here is archaeology, \'says Cohen, pointing out a Roman.
The roof of the times here is a piece of blue-
When we climbed on the uneven ground, there was Victorian porcelain.
With every wave, it becomes chaotic again.
Both times are different.
You never know what you will find.
The public has access to most of the foreshore and is welcomed by amateur archaeologists and metal detector enthusiasts whose talent and energy Koen and her colleagues have signed up to record, monitor, and protect the protected location along the front shore.
One of them is a dent in the bank right below the Millennium Bridge.
First recorded in the UK
The Saxon documents at the end of the ninth century were not used by ships until the 20 th century.
It\'s also a cemetery for two Saxons.
One of the women of The Times seemed to be hit in the head by a sword or an axe, buried in. D. 640 and 780.
It will be a creepy place in that era, Cohen said.
By that time, the Romans had been away for more than 200 years, and the ruins of the city would overgrow, fall, and be very lonely.
Archaeologists returning to Liverpool Street have screened their way to the great hills of early Roman history in London.
In the old city, in the dark mud, they found an interesting discovery: an old pot still covered, stuffed with cremated human remains
Some 2,000 years ago, it was buried along the river bank.
Another 40 human skulls were also found nearby, possibly the skulls of executed criminals or rebels.
It was discovered that the Romans knew it long ago.
The era skulls of Walbrook, but we have always thought they had eroded out of the Roman cemetery and were rushed down the river, said Kaver.
But the latest evidence suggests something different.
It looks like we will have to look back on what has been discovered here over the past two centuries and rethink what has happened.
Looking down at the black line on the Earth, this black line marks the place where the disappearing river once flowed, the noise of traffic in London came from my ear, and I found myself thinking of opening in the dark center
The narrator of Joseph Conrad, the nagging sailor Marlow, reminded his audience as they sat over London watching the sunset, which is also one of the dark places on Earth.
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