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tube 150th anniversary: how navvies paved way for crossrail

by:Gewinn     2019-08-09
One is the hand dug by a group of people holding shovels and shovels that work deep in the underground of the HighlandsRisk conditions.
The other is a giant machine with a value of millions of pounds. the depth of these machines is lower than the modern level. day London.
However, although they were separated in 150, the construction techniques used by Navi and the workers who dug the pipes were at the heart of the next city in the capital --
The underground railway.
At 26 miles (42km)
A £ 15 tunnel will be built in the east.
The western underground link started in March 2012.
Construction of the Metropolitan Railway-
The first underground railway in the world later developed into the subway we know.
Represents a similar engineering feat at that time.
The work began in March 1860, when traffic was in urgent need of improvement due to heavy street traffic in the world\'s largest city. Early labour-
Intensive \"cutting and covering\" technology was quickly replaced by a technology called \"shield\" because engineers wanted to build tunnels under Victorian London.
Mike Ashworth, manager of design and heritage in London, said: \"the cutting and covering method is to dig a trench, build it on the side, and cover the roof above.
Mr. Ashworth said: \"This is a simple method of tunnel construction, and the project is carried out below the surface.
\"In a very crowded city, so much damage has been caused by demolition.
\"Most of the roads are already full of gas mains and other utilities, and there is going to be huge unrest because they have to close the roads.
\"When local iron engineers adopt a more successful shielding approach, it heralds the transformation of the London transport network, which currently offers 270 miles of service to 250 stations (402km).
Mr. Ashworth said: \"If our system is not cut off and covered, it is unlikely that it will develop to such an extent.
\"As a technology for underground expansion, the shield was successfully used in 1825 for the first time to mine the current Wapping-
This is one of the first underwater tunnels in the world.
The modification of James Greathead and the mechanized form of the shield helped form the foundation of the horizontal rail tunnel drilling rig (TBM).
There was an iron rack in the front of the original design, and each pocket had a man holding a spade.
Once each part is dug out, before the hydraulic jack pushes the frame forward, the woodworking equipment is used to support the Earth and a row of bricks is built inside the tunnel they created.
But Tim Shields, director of the London Museum of Transport, said: \"The Shield provides some protection for workers, but it can create claustrophobic and very hot.
\"They are often bare.
But some photos show them working in jackets and shirts, which is very surprising.
Andy Arder, project manager for the western tunnel crossing railway, explained: \"It\'s called a shield because it protects people from the ground.
\"The story is based on the observation of how the worm passes through the woodworking equipment, which is almost the basis of the main tunnel work that we are doing.
\"All we do is put a steel rotary knife head with motor in front.
\"There are people digging, the jacks are the same, and then the prefabricated concrete parts are built in the back. we have a railway to dig the ground out.
\"But technological advances mean 8 TBMs, each with a value of about 10 m and a fully mechanized support system that allows the construction of horizontal rails, this is the largest civil engineering project in Europe at an average speed of about 100 (328ft)every week.
In contrast, the tower Metro was built to test Barlow/Greathead shielding technology in 1869/70 metres at a speed of about 11 metres (40ft)a week.
Mr. Alder said that the people digging the subway could make the same progress in a year as the team behind the cross-Rail did in a week.
\"This technology has been implemented, but what we do is to mechanize it to make it safer, faster and cheaper.
\"While the relatively cheap labor force will see thousands of people building subway tunnels, at any time only 20 people are working in cross-rail tunnels.
\"Health and safety are completely different in extreme situations where people work and work-related injuries, and if you are injured, there is no NHS,\" said Mr Ashworth of TfL . \".
Mr Alder of Cross Rail said: \"If there are several people killed on a construction site, it is part of life, but any minor injury is unacceptable to us.
\"The clay beneath London is the ideal tunnel condition that defines the boundaries of the Metro, mostly away from the south and east of the Thames.
Although cross-rail TBMs are able to move forward without taking geological considerations into account, the challenge they face is not to be the first person to dig underground in London.
Mr. Alder said: \"The map of the London Metro has a great impact on us.
\"We have to weave our roads under the existing Metro line, above the Jubilee line, on the foundations of large buildings, and this is not the case before 100.
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